Just as with humans, untreated diabetes in cats can lead to a number of complications. These include pancreatitis, diabetic neuropathy (walking on the hocks), diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as hypoglycemia and kidney failure. Research in humans and mice has shown that organ damage begins to occur when the blood sugar is above 140 (7.8). Many of these studies can be found here: Research Connecting Organ Damage with Blood Sugar Level. Several of the more common complications are described below.
Pancreatitis is a condition that causes severe inflammation in and around the duct area. The pancreas is already damaged, to varying degrees, by the time our cats are diagnosed with feline diabetes (FD). Dr. Hodgkins states in her book Your Cat, Secrets to a Longer, Stronger Life; cats with FD typically have at least low-grade pancreatitis. As a result, when a cat comes along that is not achieving expected results with insulin, initial thoughts should turn to the likelihood of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis may be acute or chronic.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas, where chronic pancreatitis refers to a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas that alters its normal structure and functions. Both forms of pancreatitis can cause serious complications for our cats, some more severe than others. Malabsorption of food, internal bleeding, damage to tissue, infection, cysts, fluid accumulation, enzymes and toxins entering the bloodstream, damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and/or other organs may occur if left untreated. It is now suspected that pancreatitis may be a cause of diabetes in cats. Malabsorption of food is a very common outcome in humans with pancreatitis, as is diabetes. Diabetes develops because insulin-producing cells (the islet cells) of the pancreas become damaged. For more information about pancreatitis and how it affects our FD cats, please click here.
Diabetic Neuropathy (Walking on the hocks)
Diabetic neuropathy results from damage to the peripheral nerves due to high blood glucose levels. As a result of nerve damage, cats will experience the following symptoms:
Key in preventing and treating this condition is achieving good control of blood sugars. Diabetic neuropathy has also been treated successfully in many cases using a supplement of methylcobalamin B12 (note: not to be confused with cyanocobalamin). Methylcobalamin is active in spinal fluid, and as a result, is able to help heal the damaged nerve cells. Treatment may be required for weeks or months, but improvements are usually seen quickly in most cats treated with methyl B12. Join the forum to read about member experiences and supplements to help heal diabetic neuropathy. Join the forum to read about member experiences and supplements to help heal diabetic neuropathy.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
This potentially life-threatening condition is a result of a buildup of ketones in the blood of diabetic cats. Ketones (organic acids) are formed when the body burns fat for fuel rather than glucose. In the case of diabetics, a lack of insulin renders the body unable to metabolize glucose (sugar) so the body turns to fat reserves for energy. Ketones are normally filtered out by the kidneys and excreted in the urine, however, if an excess of ketones build up, this will cause electrolyte imbalance. In addition, the pH level of the cat's blood becomes dangerously acidic.
Symptoms of ketoacidosis include:
Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a medical emergency. If you suspect your cat has DKA, get your cat to a vet immediately! If your cat has more than a mild case of Ketoacidosis; intensive care, including intravenous rehydration, correction of electrolyte imbalance, and reversal of high ketones and metabolic acidosis will be needed. You can test for ketones at home using inexpensive urine test strips, and should routinely do so until your cat's bg are regularly below 11.1/200. In a diabetic cat, any level of urinary ketones above "trace ketones" or trace ketones with any of the symptoms listed above, are reason to call a veterinarian immediately. More information and experiential guidance about DKA can be found on the forum.
Hypoglycemia (abnormally low blood sugar) occurs when the blood sugar becomes too low, thereby depriving the brain of fuel (glucose). Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:
Hypoglycemia is usually caused by an overdose of insulin. Cats on the tight regulation protocol do not typically have clinical hypo. Dr. Elizabeth Hodgkins explains: “Clinical Hypo can happen at many different levels of blood glucose, sometimes a cat will have these signs at levels that are not that low, say 70 (3.8 mmol/L), and other cats show absolutely no signs whatsoever at blood glucose levels as low as 20(1.2 mmol/L)! Therefore, the absolute number is not the whole story, not by a long shot. The cat’s liver is just as important to the control of blood glucose as the pancreas is. The liver and pancreas work together, with the pancreas keeping the blood glucose from going too high and the liver keeping the blood glucose from going too low. The cat on high carbohydrate foods loses both its normal liver function and its normal pancreatic function. This loss of normal liver function is what causes the signs of hypoglycemia. When a diabetic cat is consuming low carb foods instead of high carb foods, the liver resumes its ability to make enough glucose to meet the brain’s needs, and signs of clinical hypo DO NOT OCCUR. Low carbohydrate-fed cats have tremendous resistance to hypo signs because their livers work to keep this problem from occurring..” For more info on DCC's opinions, member’s experiences and guidelines to treat low numbers when following TR - please join the forum.
Diabetic Nephropathy (Renal or Kidney Failure)
Diabetic nephropathy occurs when high levels of glucose damage the glomeruli, which are the filtering structures, in the kidney. The damaged kidneys can no longer remove waste and extra fluids from the blood stream. Eventually, protein will leak out of the kidneys into the urine. Along with achieving regulation of blood sugars to prevent further damage to the kidneys, treatment for kidney failure may involve treatment with drugs such as benazepril (an ace-inhibitor), intravenous fluid therapy, and phosphorus binders. Join the forum for more information on how diabetic kidney failure is managed in conjunction with tight regulation.
Hepatic Lipidosis is a serious complication affecting the liver. More common in overweight cats, Hepatic Lipidosis occurs as a result of not eating (anorexia). The body starts to break down fat for energy and if too much fat is broken down, it begins to accumulate in the liver, causing it to swell. Symptoms include refusing to eat, vomiting, weight loss, lethargy, and jaundice (often indicated by a yellowish look to the whites of the eyes, gums and inside the ears).
It is essential that cats with Hepatic Lipidosis eat. This may involve giving appetite stimulants, syringe feeding or inserting a feeding tube if the cat refuses food for 24 hours or more. While Hepatic Lipidosis is rare, it is usually fatal if not treated.
In addition to the above complications, diabetic cats may also experience vomiting, diarrhea and other stomach upsets. Diabetes in cats causes susceptibility to infections due to high levels of glucose in the blood and urine. FD cats may experience frequent urinary tract infections/inflammation (UTIs), dental problems, skin infections and delayed wound healing.
For more information and to discuss members' experiences about the above complications, and any other issues common to diabetes in cats, please join the Diabetic Cat Care Forum.